文档:吉卜力工作室十年史

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 「天空の城ラピュタ」雑誌記事再録/掲載データ スタジオジブリの10年一その歴史と現状一 奥付
 主页面 吉卜力的哲学 目录 
 Ⅰ 我们一直以来思考的事 ——从吉卜力草创期到『千与千寻』
Ⅰ 我们一直以来思考的事
——从吉卜力草创期到『千与千寻』
吉卜力工作室的十年
「小工厂」吉卜力——『千与千寻』打败迪士尼
吉卜力工作室的十年
  不晓得各位知不知道,日本人很害羞。所以不论是自我介绍,或是向人说明自己多年来努力的成绩,日本人都非常不擅长。连我也是其中一人。
  因此我今天要讲的内容是先用日文写下,再请人翻译成英文。因为考量到我不会说英语,如果要用英语说的话,恐怕词不达意,无法侃侃而谈。我的发音不好,不容易听懂之处还请见谅。,题目是「吉卜力工作室的十年」。我是这间工作室的现场负责人铃木。我与宫崎、高畑两位导演同时也是十七年的朋友。接下来,请大家给我一点时间,让我一一说明。
吉卜力的创立
  吉卜力工作室的创立契机,乃是『风之谷』在内容和票房上获得成功之际,也就是一九八五年要制作『天空之城』时,由制作『风之谷』的出版社德间书店主导设立的动画工作室。之后便以宫崎骏、高畑勋两位导演为核心,持续制作动画电影。至于「吉卜力(Ghibli)」一词的原意是撒哈拉沙漠上的热风。二次世界大战期间,意大利的侦察机曾用它来命名,本身是飞机迷的宫崎知道这事,便拿它当作工作室的名字。我记得当时的用意是「要在日本动画界掀起旋风」。
  像吉卜力这样原则上只制作电影版动画长片,而且是原创作品的工作室,在日本动画界,不如说在全世界,我想都是极为特殊的存在。为什么呢?因为无法保证票房一定好,电影版制作风险太大,将重心摆在能够持续获得收入的电视系列动画片才是一般的常识。在日本,多数动画工作室也都把重心放在电视动画,偶尔才制作电影版作品。而且,日本制作的电影版动画,其实十有八九都是将风评好的电视动画改制成电影。说个数据供各位参考,日本每周会产出四十支以上的电视动画新作。
  吉卜力也不是一开始就以现在这样的制度在运作。以下,我想先讲述吉卜力的历史,包括创立之前的阶段。
  说起来,我认识高畑和宫崎这两位目前吉卜力的核心人物,是三十多年以前的事。当时两人所属的东映动画还在制作电影版的动画长片。他们参与制作了多部长片,却不得不随着时代的浪潮将活跃的舞台移往电视。一九七四年播出的电视系列动画片『小天使』是由高畑执导、宫崎负责作画的作品,这部堪称是电视动画的一个高峰之作。此作品在欧洲电视台播出同样博得好评,我想应该很多人都看过。
  不过在产出这一类作品的过程中,他们慢慢得到一个结论:电视这种在预算和时间都大受限制的媒体,毕竟不可能实现自己一直以来追求的贴近真实且高品质的动画制作——深入描写人的心理,以丰富的表现力,如实描绘人生的欢喜与悲伤。这结论便成为『风之谷』后成立吉卜力的原动力。投入预算和时间,一部一部倾注全副精力,力求内容全面而周到,且毫不妥协。而且拥戴宫崎、高畑这两位导演,以导演中心主义制作电影。吉卜力的十年,也许可以说就是一段备尝艰辛的历史,它靠着两位导演卓越的能力及工作人员的努力,一面保持前述的态度,一面让商业上的成功和工作室的经营并行不悖。老实说,我们谁也没想到吉卜力会持续到现在。因为创立当初的想法就是,一部成功的话才做下一部,失败的话就结束。因此,为了减少风险,我们采取不聘用正职,每一部作品招集七十名左右的工作人员,完成后就解散的方式。地点是东京吉祥寺一栋出租大楼中的一个楼层。提出这方针的其实是高畑勋。他在『风之谷』中担任制作人,那时所展现的实务能力在吉卜力创立之时也发挥很大的功用。此外,『天空之城』也是高畑勋制作、宫崎骏导演的作品。
  『风之谷』一九八四年在日本公开上映,前往观看的观众达九十一万五千人;『天空之城』是一九八六年上映,前往观看的观众达七十七万五千人,两者分别都获得很高的评价。我想在场的各位应该也有不少人看过这两部作品吧?谢谢各位爱护。
受到日本电影界注目的吉卜力
  接下来吉卜力工作室制作的是『龙猫』和『萤火虫之墓』。这两部作品其实是于同一时期制作,一九八八年四月以联映的方式公开上映。『龙猫』的导演是宫崎骏,『萤火虫之墓』是高畑勋。宫崎和高畑的作品同时上映,这是空前绝后的一次,现在回想起来,这是相当耀眼的组合。不过制作现场却也因此陷入非常棘手的状态。因为必须同时制作两部长片,而且希望提升作品的品质。几乎是不合理的要求,可是现在不做的话,制作这两部作品的机会不会再来。我便是基于这样的判断,继续推动这除了蛮干之外什么也不是的计划。
  吉卜力的目的是要制作优良的作品。公司的维系和发展是其次。这部分与一般的公司大异其趣。『龙猫』和『萤火虫之墓』的联映计划也是在这样的方针下才能实现。这里我们不能忘记一个人,那就是吉卜力的社长德间康快。他同时也是德间书店的社长,除了出版本业,他还广泛地拓展事业版图。因沟口健二的作品而闻名的大映电影公司,现在也由他在经营。
  社长极少出现在工作室。因为他基本上全权交由现场负责。可是在关键时刻他会出面。拍板决定将漫画『风之谷』改编成电影、成立吉卜力的都是他。『龙猫』和『萤火虫之墓』的两部联映在敲定片商之前其实遇上相当大的困难。因为与前面两部相比,感觉很不起眼。这时也是德间社长亲自登门拜访片商,推销这两部作品,才谈妥发行事宜。在这些关键时刻如果少了德间社长,大概就不会有现在的吉卜力。
  『龙猫』和『萤火虫之墓』的上映期在日本并非暑假旺季,也因为这样,首轮的票房成绩差强人意。不过,我们确实接到各方对于作品内容极高的评价。『龙猫』囊括了当年度日本国内包括一般电影在内的所有电影奖。『萤火虫之墓』也以文艺电影之姿备受赞誉。吉卜力便靠着这两部作品,打开其在日本电影界的名声。
  没想到,『龙猫』还衍生出周边产品。其绒毛玩具大受欢迎。我刚才说「没想到」,是因为这绒毛玩具是电影上映两年后才被做成商品。不是电影制作方事先相准它与票房的加乘效应而制作,是某绒毛玩具制造商爱上龙猫,认为「那才应该做成绒毛玩具」,热心怂恿吉卜力的结果。
  不论如何,拜龙猫商品之赐,吉卜力的电影制作费得以持续得到填补,此后并自然而然用龙猫当作公司的标志。在衍生商品计划方面,现在吉卜力内部正准备设立故事角色商品部,计划正式推展这项事业。只是,我们始终坚持先有电影,之后才有衍生商品的方针。绝不会为了商品化而决定或是变更作品的内容。
吉卜力第二阶段的出发
  现在言归正传。
  第一部在票房上大获成功的吉卜力作品是宫崎导演一九八九年的作品『魔女宅急便』。二百六十四万人走进戏院观赏,成为当年日本卖座第一的国片。票房和动员人数与以往相差悬殊。不过也因为票房大卖,有关人员之间对于今后吉卜力的发展方向有了热烈的讨论。具体来说就是工作人员的待遇和新人的录用和养成。
  日本动画界通常会有「每画一张图多少钱、为一张图上色多少钱」的工资设定,也就是所谓的「按件计酬制」,当时吉卜力也是采用这种做法。结果导致『魔女宅急便』工作人员的收入约只有一般行情的一半的惨况。
  宫崎导演提出两个方案。
  1. 工作人员正职化及采用固定薪给制度。以工资倍增为目标。
  2. 定期招募新人并进行培育。
  当时日本动画界的状况与吉卜力完全相反,每况愈下。我判断在那样的状况下,据点的维持、组织的确立、工作人员的正职化、建立养成制度等,对制作优质的作品缺一不可。这是一次明确的改弦更张。可以说是吉卜力第二阶段的出发。这时同样获得德间社长的支持。
  现在我要稍微聊一下我自己。我其实是这时才转到吉卜力担任专职。若问我之前都在做什么,就是德间书店发行的动画专业杂志《Animage》的总编辑。一九七八年《Animage》创刊之时我就在那里任职,一九八三年德间书店展开『风之谷』的制作以后,我便一边担任杂志编辑,一边参与吉卜力的电影制作。日语称这种情况叫做「穿两双草鞋」,意思就是同时身兼二职。虽然非常忙碌,但每天都过得很充实。不过吉卜力的改弦更张改变了我的人生。吉卜力和我都走到无法回头的关键时刻。
  『魔女宅急便』之后,吉卜力着手制作高畑导演的『岁月的童话』。这部作品制作中的一九九〇年十一月起,如我刚才所说的,吉卜力开始将工作人员转为正职,同时启动动画实习生制度,每年定期性地招募新人。
  一九九一年上映的『岁月的童话』也把影片发行相关人士的不安晾在一边,卖座长虹。与『魔女宅急便』同样成为当年票房第一的国片。我尤其开心的是,宫崎提出的两大目标——工资倍增和录用新人——都达成了。不过,同时也有了必须严正以待的问题。那就是制作费高飙。其实制作前即已料到了。为什么呢?因为动画的制作费大约八〇%是人事费,既然要工资倍增,表示制作费也会自动成长近一倍。
  「吉卜力第二阶段」的新方针必然将相关人士的目光指向宣传、票房方面。制作费的大幅上涨很难避免。既然如此,只能更有意识、更有计划地提高观众数,好与增幅的制作费相应。在此之前并非没有这样想过,但这部『岁月的童话』成了触发我开始认真投入宣传的作品。
  当时吉卜力的最高负责人是原彻,他在当时提出「吉卜力就是三高」:「高成本」、「高风险」、「高回报」。我认为他的意思是:投入大笔资金制作高品质的作品,尽管怀着巨大不安依然要赚大钱。那之后过了四年,这句话到现在依然适用。不过,关于「高回报」的部分,即使真的如愿也会马上投入下一部作品,所以手边其实并没有剩钱。至于雇用员工即意谓著每个月要发薪水。吉卜力自己把自己逼进只能不停地创作作品的状态。注定要不停地创作的吉卜力在『岁月的童话』制作期间又启动『红猪』的制作。制作期重叠对吉卜力而言是前所未有的经验。毕竟『岁月的童话』已进入最后关头。所有工作人员都忙得不可开交,我不知道该如何匀出人力去制作『红猪』。吉卜力里没有一个闲人。到头来,只有宫崎一个人投入『红猪』的制作。宫崎抱怨道:「制作、演出助理和所有的一切全要我一人包办吗?」我虽然听他抱怨,也只能请他一个人自立自强了。
新工作室的建设
  不知道是不是想要消除这样的压力?宫崎突然提议:「盖一间新的工作室吧!」在最艰难的时刻提出更大的难题以求解决当前的问题,这是宫崎惯常的做法。不过这次他端出的理由确实能打动人。他说,为确保优秀人才,租借的据点不具说服力。要先有了容器,人才会聚拢过来,也才有办法讨论人才培育。工作室已局促到无法再塞人进来了。近九十名的工作人员挤在三百平方米的空间里工作。不过,当时的吉卜力并没有钱盖新的工作室。
  原先生以不符常识为由大为反对。我则是一方面觉得太乱来,另一方面又认为「总会有办法的吧」。而对此大表赞同的又是德间社长。他甚至用不寻常的说辞勉励我:「铃木,银行有的是钱。人活在世上就是要承担重物。」我还记得当时非常感动,觉得原来还有这样的人生观啊。原先生留下「我们想法不同」这句话后,便离开了吉卜力。这一年宫崎骏施展三头六臂的本领,是个不折不扣的天才。他一面制作『红猪』,一面亲自画设计图,与建设公司开会磋商,绘制完成的预想图,索取材料的样本,挑选、决定。一年后,『红猪』和新工作室几乎同时完成。『红猪』上映后不久,吉卜力便搬到东京都小金井市的新工作室。
  我要介绍一下现在的工作室供各位参考。工作室占地约一千一百平方米,楼层总面积也几乎一样。地上三楼,地下一楼。三楼是美术部门,二楼是作画和制作,一楼是上色,地下一楼是摄影。一楼设有名为「BAR」的空间,是工作人员交流的地方。算算,我一年只有几次会在这地方喝酒,平常都是开会或去员工餐厅。这里最大的特色其实是厕所。吉卜力的女性厕所面积是男性厕所的一倍。虽然男女人数差不多。设备也比较高级。可说透露出设计者宫崎女性主义者的一面。前些时候,有几位法国的记者朋友来访,他们也是仔细参观了工作室之后才离开。另外,绿意盎然、刻意缩小停车场空间等,应该也算是特色吧。
  言归正传。一九九二年夏天,『红猪』公开上映,打败史匹柏的『虎克船长』和迪士尼的『美女与野兽』,勇夺那一年日本所有上映电影的票房冠军。
吉卜力的特色
  一九九三年,吉卜力引进两台电脑操控的大型摄影机,成立期盼多年的摄影部门。如此才成长为一个拥有作画、美术、上色到摄影全部部门的工作室,不过这与朝极度分工发展的日本动画界完全相反。这么做同样是基于我们认为在同一个地方紧密合作、进行一贯作业,与作品品质的提升息息相关。
  一九九三这一年,吉卜力也制作了第一部电视动画——『听到涛声』。导演是当时三十四岁的望月智充。这是吉卜力首次由高畑、宫崎以外的人出任导演。制作小组也是以二、三十岁年轻的一辈为中心组成,口号是「快速、便宜又好」。这部七十分钟的电视动画虽然得到一定的评价,但最后预算和时间都大幅超出。电视动画是吉卜力今后的一大课题。
  一九九四年高畑导演的作品『欢喜碰碰狸』再次成为那年日本国片的卖座第一名。昨天在大厅已上映过,今天下午五点起雷诺阿厅会再次放映,请各位务必莅临观赏。这是由吉卜力在『岁月的童话』之后聘用、培养出来的年轻动画师们担纲作画、大显身手之作。而且,吉卜力在『欢喜碰碰狸』中首次采用CG。这一部只有三个镜头,今后我们打算因应需要继续使用。
  话说,目前吉卜力工作室所属员工有作画部门四十六人、上色部门八人、美术部门十二人、摄影部门四人、演出和制作部门十二人、出版和商品开发部门五人,以及董事、管理等其他部门十二人,合计共九十九人。像这样列出数字就能看出,大部分的员工都是画画的人。顺便告诉各位,员工的平均年龄是二十九岁。我一再谈到,与其他工作室相比,吉卜力作品的成本较高。可是正如我们从这个员工组成可以看出,「绝大多数花掉的钱都在影片上」,这是吉卜力的一大特征。因为相较于一般公司,吉卜力的间接部门非常少。
  此外,奉宫崎导演「要给日本儿童观赏的作品理当由日本人自己制作」的哲学,吉卜力自创立以来,不曾将工作外包给国外,这一点也值得特别提出来。
***
  接着要谈有关吉卜力电影的宣传。为了方便各位理解,我把内容做了相当程度的统整。假使听起来有如「事情全部照着行销计划走」,好像很了不起似的,但其实与事实有些出入。因为很多事是在某种脉络下自然演变的结果。那部分请斟酌著听。
  另外,日本人是最爱漫画的民族。各位也许早有听闻,在日本,不论是大人小孩都会看漫画。同样的,吉卜力工作室的作品在日本也是超越世代,众多大人小孩都爱看。主要的观众与其说是小孩,不如说是成年人。如果举『欢喜碰碰狸』为例,看过这部作品的人将近七十%是二十岁以上的成年人。若能先有这样的概念,我想就能理解接下来要讲的内容。
吉卜力的宣传策略
  吉卜力工作室的特色可以说是兼顾「内容的评价」和「票房上的成功」。但在政府对电影的保护并不积极的国家,尤其是像日本,即使志向再高、不断地制作好的作品,但光靠这样迟早会面临经营上的问题,很难永续经营。
  日本的电影界决非一帆风顺,而是处在长期低迷的状态。这情况甚至比法国还更糟。
  在这样的情势下,近来吉卜力的作品却总能取得一定的票房成绩。其关键,大致来说有三点。
  第一,无庸赘言,作品的完成度很高。尤其是,主题的设定总是优先考量现代性。若以『欢喜碰碰狸』来说,画的虽然是狸子,但会联想到日本人,成为一部回顾战后五十年发展的电影。在宫崎、高畑这两位导演的指挥下,利用高超技术创造出高品质的影像,以补强这样的主题。倘若内容乏善可陈,就算进行再大的宣传也不可能持续获得成功。第二是过去长期累积的成绩。吉卜力作品并非全部都在票房上大获成功。如我在前面所说的,具体来说是从『魔女宅急便』开始。不过,前两部作品『龙猫』和『萤火虫之墓』对这一次的大获成功举足轻重。我要再谈一下这个部分。这两部作品虽然同时上映,但上映当时并没有创下多高的票房成绩。不过在内容上获得非常高的评价,尤其是日后的录像带销售和电视台播放,开拓出普遍而广大的支持层,大幅超越一般所谓的动画迷圈子。可以说,成功培养出一股潜在的对「吉卜力电影」的信任感。因为有这样的基础才会有『魔女宅急便』的成功。那之后,渐渐形成「前一部作品内容上的成功帮助下一部作品赢得票房成功」这种幸福的连锁。
  第三是以明确的方针展开大规模宣传。电影在日本并非主要的娱乐活动。平均计算下来,一个日本人一年只看一部电影。单纯只是一部好的电影并无法吸引人走进戏院观看。
  要突破这个局面必须借由大量宣传把电影变成一个活动。吉卜力作品基本上都是在夏天上映,我们会在全国营造出「今年夏天绝对值得一看的话题核心」这样的氛围。说是宣传,但其实不只是一般所谓的电影宣传。由于现状是不可能从有限的预算中拨出大笔经费投入宣传,因此我们一直在寻求各种形式,致力于不花钱的商业合作和推广活动。
  首先,我们让日本民营广播电视的龙头日本电视放送网参与制作,因而展开透过电视台所做的大幅宣传。也就是请日本电视台在众多节目上免费介绍作品。再来是与由日本数一数二的广告商博报堂或电通统筹广告业务的大企业合作,进行联合宣传。『魔女宅急便』是与快递业者大和运输合作。『岁月的童话』是食品业大厂可果美和兄弟牌缝纽机两家公司。『红猪』是日本航空。『欢喜碰碰狸』和『心之谷』是大型保险公司JA共济。这些商业合作创造出的广告量若换算成金额,与电影的制作费不相上下。因为是合作,企业的首要目的当然是宣传自己的公司或产品,不过吉卜力作品的情况是,作品本身即具有很强的「社会普遍认知的好印象」,所以企业通常都认为支持吉卜力作品会带动自家公司形象的提升。因此往往超岀了共同广告的范畴,会积极强打吉卜力作品的文宣元素,以做宣传。
  此外,一般报纸、杂志等的宣传也非常重要。我们会委托专业的公关公司,积极与各大媒体的编辑部打好关系,以获得善意的报导。这种时候,过去的成绩同样很管用。许多第一线的记者、编辑从小就爱看宫崎和高畑的动画,也因此愿意从善意的角度理解吉卜力的作品,这算是我们的一种优势。平面媒体上若有稍微深入的报导,也会成为强而有力的奥援。
  吉卜力工作室在进行这一类宣传时,最小心的就是宣传目标。即便是日本,提到动画仍然摆脱不了「属于儿童」的印象。然而日本电影若未获年轻女性青睐就别指望卖座,而且同时动员亲子观看也非常重要。因此,吉卜力作品是广泛瞄准大人小孩,进行全方位的宣传。这时,强力凸显那是经得起大人鉴赏的高水准作品就会变得非常重要。
吉卜力作品的进军海外市场
  接下来我要谈吉卜力进军海外市场的经过。
  在此之前,吉卜力作品的海外上映地点主要是香港、台湾等亚洲地区。可是大约从前年起,情况渐渐有所改变。先是『龙猫』在美国的戏院公开上映,接着二十世纪福斯公司发行『龙猫』的录像带,写下五十六万支的销售纪录。这对日本电影在美国的扩展具有划时代的意义。而且『欢喜碰碰狸』也被选中代表日本角逐奥斯卡的最佳外语片奖。此外,各位也许已有所听闻,『红猪』确定将从六月二十一日起,在法国六十间戏院公开上映。位于巴黎的UCORE公司是我们的代理商,董事长植木女士非常有想法、做法,事实上此刻她人也在会场,因为她的出色表现,我们才能与CANAL PLUS达成协议,实现这次的公开上映。主角波鲁克·罗素是由尚·雷诺担任配音。我是后来才知道,宫崎导演原来是尚·雷诺的忠实影迷,非常欣赏『碧海蓝天』中恩佐这个角色。所以他对此非常开心。
  今后欧洲和北美地区可能有更多机会看到吉卜力的作品。我们认为只要条件恰当就会接受。能获得众多不分国籍、种族的朋友观赏、喜爱,是创作者最开心的事。然而,要正式在海外上映必须克服种种障碍。经常会遇到的是,一开始就表示想要销售录像带,或是只想在电视上播放。我们始终是以在戏院公开上映为第一考量。
  此外,不用说,作品的更动根本不在讨论的范围内。然而令人难过的是,我们在制作『风之谷』时,知识和经验都还不足。这部作品被人擅自改编成糟糕的删减版,以『WARRIORS OF THE WIND』的片名在美国以外的地区上映。倘若在场的朋友有人看过这部删减版,我希望您现在立刻忘了它。
  还有,吉卜力今后也不会先将世界市场纳入考虑,譬如说以多国企业的行销策略制作电影。先为日本市场努力创作,之后才考虑海外市场,我想我们今后依然会持续这样的想法。
吉卜力的未来
  我们在预定今年夏天公开上映的新作『心之谷』中做了新的布局,宫崎担任制作人、编剧、负责分镜图,而由过去在吉卜力作品『萤火虫之墓』、『魔女宅急便』、『岁月的童话』中担任作画监督的近藤喜文挑战初次执导。并在许多地方引进最新的数位科技等,进行技术上的实验。
  而继『心之谷』之后,吉卜力工作室紧接着投入预定于九七年上映的第十一部长片『幽灵公主』的制作。这一部是宫崎导演的作品,片中计划大胆采用电脑动画,是吉卜力的全新挑战。为此,我们在今年六月起新设了「CG制作室」,导入最低限度的CG制作系统,同时向日本电视台借调曾负责制作『欢喜碰碰狸』CG部分的CG导演。此外,第一个年度的投资金额,光是系统部分就大约一亿日圆。而『心之谷』使用过、成效不错的「数位合成」,已决定正式用于这部作品中。我认为,这将可能为过去平面式的动画表现,带来强大的纵深感。
  此外,继近藤导演之后,为了继续发掘新导演,今年四月起,我们开办了动画导演培训班「东小金井村塾」。由高畑勋岀任塾长。
  当然,没有人能保证吉卜力工作室今后也能达到如以往那样的发展。每一部作品都是一个新的挑战,不可或忘。我认为,今后继续在内容上、技术上,及人的方面不断革新,是有助于吉卜力继续保持理想的最重要条件。
  我的谈话在此大致结束。若有疑问,我会就我所能回答的范围答复各位。不过我会用日语回答,请原谅。
(安锡国际动画影展演讲稿,一九九五年)
This is a transcription of the speech delivered by Toshio Suzuki during the special programme for Studio GHIBLI
at
Annecy International Animated Film Festival
in the summer of 1995.
 
February 1996
by Toshio Suzuki
Executive Managing Director
Studio GHIBLI
 
Ladies and gentlemen,

I wonder if you know, but the Japanese are shy. So when it comes to introducing themselves or explaining what they have accomplished, the Japanese find it rather difficult. I am, of course, one of such people. As I am not proficient in the English language, my Japanese manuscript has been translated into English to bring out this message to you, and I am very pleased to have this opportunity to talk to you about "the Ten Years of Studio GHIBLI." I am Toshio Suzuki, a producer of the Studio, and a close friend of both Miyazaki and Takahata for more than 17 years.
 
(1) Ghibli - Its Start
 
"Nausicaa of the Valley of Wind" was a great success both in terms of the box-office performance and in its achievement of a high quality work. This success triggered the founding of Studio GHIBLI in 1985 by Tokuma Shoten (Tokuma Shoten Publishing Co., Ltd), the publishing company that produced "Nausicaa." In the same year, the Studio produced a feature film called "Laputa: The Castle in the Sky." Since then, the studio has been specializing in producing theatrical animation films under the direction of Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata. For those who are not aware, the word "GHIBLI" means "hot wind blowing through the Sahara Desert," which was used during the World War II by Italian pilots referring to their scouting airplanes. Miyazaki, a craze for airplanes, knew this, and decided to take this word for the Studio name. "Let's blow a sensational wind into the Japanese world of animation!" was, I remember, the intention behind the naming of GHIBLI.

The presence of this Studio, I believe, is quite unique not only in the Japanese animation industry, but internationally as well, in that the Studio produces, in principle, only theatrical animation films (or feature films) based on original work. Because production of theatrical films entails too big a risk in that there is no guarantee for box-office success, it is common for most animation studios to work mainly on TV animations. This is also true in Japan and many of the animation studios rely on TV animations, producing only from time to time theatrical films, most of which are just theatrical versions of an already popular TV animation piece. Incidentally, more than 40 new animation TV series are being produced every week in Japan.

GHIBLI, of course, did not start out the way it is being run today. Let me explain the history of GHIBLI, including the stages that led to its start.

It was more than 30 years ago that Takahata and Miyazaki, now the 2 leading members of the Studio, met. Toei-Doga, the production studio to which both had belonged at that time, was producing only animation feature films. While they had participated in the production of some theatrical feature films in the beginning, they were caught in the current of time, and they had no choice but to make animations for TV. One of the TV series was "Heidi," aired in 1974, animated by Miyazaki and directed by Takahata, and which made a marked achievement in the world of TV animations. Many of you may have seen this because this was brought on TV in Europe and highly evaluated there too.

While creating such TV series, however, they were gradually coming to realize that it was impossible to achieve what they were truly after through a media called Television where budget was tight and time very limited. What they sought to achieve was animation that is real and of high quality, that probes into the depth of the human mind, and that illustrates the joys and sorrows of life as they really are. This was the motivation that led to the creation of the studio after completing the "Nausicaa of the Valley of Wind." The idea was to dedicate full energy into each piece of work with sufficient budget and time, never compromising on the quality or content. Each film was to be directed by Miyazaki and Takahata, the directors taking command, their decisions having the priority. You may say that the ten years of Studio GHIBLI is a history that has overcome the difficult task of maintaining this posture and still being successful commercially and efficiently managing the studio, with of course the support of the hard wolt="[Blue Ribbon Icon]" align="right"> This page is brought to you by Team Ghiblink . 
the risk to a minimum, no full-time employees were hired. About 70 persons were temporarily hired to complete one film, and when the film was completed, the team was dismissed. The place was simply one rented floor in a building in Kichijoji in the a suburb of Tokyo. All these policies were implemented by Takahata. He was the one who produced the "Nausicaa of the Valley of Wind," and it was his ability as a business manager that contributed so much to the start of the new studio. "Laputa: The Castle in the Sky" that followed was also produced by him and directed under Miyazaki. "Nausicaa," released in 1984, drew 915,000 people to the theater and "Laputa," released in 1986, brought in 775,000 people. Both received high acclaims. I believe many of you have seen those pictures. Let me take this opportunity to thank you once again.
 在1984年《风之谷》上映之后,不论是票房表现或影片的水准方面均获得了相当大的成功,于是,在德间书店的支持下,1985年,“吉卜力工作室”成立了。同年,吉卜力开始制作《天空之城》,自此以后,吉卜力工作室成为一个专为宫崎骏和高畑勋制作动画的工作室。   “吉卜力”(GHIBLI)这个名字事实上本意是指撒哈拉沙漠上吹的热风。在二次世界大战的时候,意大利空军飞行员将他们的侦察机也命名为“吉卜力”。宫崎骏是个飞行器狂,当然也知道这件事,于是决定用“吉卜力”作为他们工作室的名字。而在这个名字的背后,还有一层含意,也就是希望这个工作室能在日本动画界掀起一阵旋风!!   

 吉卜力工作室是一个相当特殊的团体,不论在日本国内或是国际间都是一样。因为吉卜力工作室原则上只制作由原著改编,剧场放映用的动画。由于制作剧场版的动画必须冒相当大的票房风险,所以一般的工作室通常都以制作TV版动画为主,虽然偶尔会制作一些剧场动画,但是大多数也是由著名的TV版动画改编而成的。(附带说一句,日本平均每周制作超过40部的TV版动画!)接下来谈到吉卜力的历史。   

 30年前,名叫宫崎骏和高畑勋的两个年轻人相遇了。那时他们一起在一个叫“东映动画”的工作室里工作。这个工作室原本也是只制作电影动画的,但是在时代潮流的影响之下,他们无可选择地还是做了一部TV的动画《阿尔卑斯山的少女》,于1974年播出,由宫崎骏制作,高畑勋导演。这部动画在全世界都广受欢迎。   

 然而,在制作这部动画的同时,宫崎骏和高畑勋逐渐领悟到,通过电视版这种制作时间和成本都大受限制的动画形式,是没有办法达到表现他们心中真正追求的境界的。他们所追求的,是纯粹而高品质的动画,是能真正深入人心,刻画人们生命中喜悦与悲伤的动画。这一股信念,正是他们在《风之谷》成功之后,毅然成立“吉卜力工作室”的根本动机。他们的理想,是将全部精力都灌注在他们的每一部作品之中,绝不牺牲品质向有限的时间和预算妥协。每一部作品都将由宫崎骏和高畑勋制作导演,一切的指示都由导演来下达,导演的决定拥有最高的优先权。吉卜力工作室这十年以来,一直都坚持着这样的理念,而这可说是宫崎骏和高畑勋这两位出类拔萃的导演和全工作室人员努力的成果。   

 吉卜力工作室的成员们,从来都没想过这个工作室竟然能一直存活到现在。“我们制作一部电影,如果它成功了,就再做下一部。如果失败了,那这个工作室就得结束生命。”吉卜力成员们当初就是抱着这样的心态出发的。为了使风险减到最低,他们没雇用半个全职的工作人员。在制作一部影片的时候,他们大约会召募七十个左右的人员组成小组,当电影完工之后,小组即自动解散。他们工作的地方,就只有位于东京市郊一间房子中的一层楼而已,而且还是租来的。一切的管理决策都由高畑勋一手包办,在他的良好经营之下,吉卜力工作室才得已顺利地完成《天空之城》的制作,并在1986年上映,成功地吸引了七十八万名观众到电影院观赏,同时得到了极高的评价。  
(2) Ghibli, Center of Attention in the Japanese Film Industry
 
The next 2 films that Studio GHIBLI produced were "My Neighbor Totoro" and "the Grave of the Fireflies." Directors were Miyazaki for "Totoro" and Takahata for "Fireflies." The same time release of two works by two of the most talented directors was quite a show, which would turn out to be the first and the last. The process in the making of these films was sheer chaos. The studio was making two long films all at one time, and none of their quality was to be sacrificed. It seemed almost impossible, but it was a chance that couldn't be missed. We knew that if we didn't go ahead now, we would never come across the chance to make them both. Having made that decision, we went ahead with what seemed to be an almost impossible project. To produce good pictures is what the studio is all about. Management and growth of the company come second. This is probably what distinguishes Studio GHIBLI from other studios and, without this policy, the production of these two films would not have been made possible.

In talking about the history of GHIBLI, one person we cannot forget mentioning is Yasuyoshi Tokuma, the president of GHIBLI. He is also the president of Tokuma Shoten Publishing Company, and, besides the main publishing business, he is widely involved in the development of other businesses as well. He is also the owner of Daiei film studio, famous for films directed by Kenji Mizoguchi.

Tokuma seldom visits the Studio, the reasons being that he basically leaves us alone, leaving the decision-making up to us. But when it comes to a time in need, he always comes up to the front line. It was he who made the decision to make Miyazaki's comic "Nausicaa" into a theatrical picture and it was he who established the Studio GHIBLI. It was not easy to realize the release of both "Totoro" and "Fireflies" because both films seemed rather quiet compared to the previous two films. It was then that Tokuma himself went to the distributors, campaigned for the two films, and successfully made an agreement with the distributors to make the release of the two films possible. If any one of his efforts had lacked, Studio GHIBLI would not exist now.

The box office performance of "Totoro" and "Fireflies" were not as good as expected due to the time lag in the release of the films, that is, they were not released during the summer season when a great many Japanese go to the theater. Yet, they received high acclaims from various fields for the superb quality of work. For that year, "Totoro" won most of the picture awards in Japan, including best photography. "Fireflies" was highly praised as a true literary art. With these two pictures, Studio GHIBLI became widely known in the Japanese film industry.

"Totoro" brought us an unexpected gain, too, and that is the big hit of the stuffed Totoro toys. I say "unexpected" because the stuffed toys were marketed nearly 2 years after the release of the film, and they were not intentionally created to promote box office performance. What actually happened was that a stuffed toy manufacturer ardently felt that Totoro was a character that deserved to be made into a stuffed toy and eagerly asked GHIBLI for its permission.

All in all, thanks to the sale of Totoro goods, it now became possible for GHIBLI to continually cover for any deficit in production cost. Totoro was even adopted as the company logo. A plan is under way now in GHIBLI to set up a department to promote the sale of character goods. Needless to say, there is no change in the policy that film productions come first and interest in merchandising come only as its result. We have not, and never will, decide on, or change any part of the picture based on the merchandising value.
 吉卜力工作室接下来的两部电影是《龙猫》和《萤火虫之墓》,负责导演的分别是宫崎骏和高畑勋。当时两部电影的制作时同时进行的,整个制作过程简直是一片混乱。而令人惊叹的是,即使是同时制作两部电影,品质却丝毫没有降低的迹象,这几乎是不可能的!!但吉卜力做到了,他们的政策方针是将制作良好的影片摆在第一位,公司的经营和成长则是其次。这就是吉卜力和其他的工作室不同的地方。如果没有这样的政策,想制作这两部电影根本是不可能的。  

 谈到吉卜力工作室的历史时,有一个人是不得不提到的,他就是德间康快,吉卜力的总裁。同时,他也是德间书店的总裁,除了负责发行业务之外,他也参与了一些公司发展及其他的事务。另外,他也拥有一个名叫Daiei的影片工作室,此工作室一向以制作大导演沟囗健二的影片闻名。   

 德间康快很少来吉卜力的工作室,因为他原则上希望吉卜力工作室能自由地发展,自由地做决定。但是在有需要的时候,他总是站在第一线帮忙。当初将宫崎骏的漫画风之谷搬上银幕,正是出自他的决定,同时,吉卜力工作室也是由他一手创建的。 

 要将《龙猫》和《萤火虫之墓》这两部电影发行上映,吉卜力工作室遇到了不小的困难。因为这两部电影和他们的之前的几部电影相较,显得相当的沈闷。当时,德间康快自己不惜风尘仆仆地游走于发行片商之间,为这两部片拼命地争取发行上映的机会。最后在他的努力之下,终于说服了片商。如果缺少了他的任何一点努力奉献,吉卜力工作室现在早已不在了。

 《龙猫》和《萤火虫之墓》的票房表现并不如预期,这可能是由于错过了上映时间的关系,也就是说,这两部片并没能在暑假这个电影旺季上映。不过,它们超卓的品质却获得了各界一致的赞赏。那一年,《龙猫》几乎包办了日本所有的电影大奖,甚至还包括了最佳摄影奖。而《萤火虫之墓》则被盛赞为“真正的艺术”。藉着这两部片,吉卜力工作室在日本电影界打响了极大的名气。另外,《龙猫》也为吉卜力带来了意想不到的收获——龙猫布娃娃竟然大受欢迎。为什么说是“意想不到”呢?因为龙猫布偶的上市距离影片上映差不多已有两年之久了,而且他们创造龙猫当初也并不是为了想促进票房。事实上,是有一家布偶制造商看上了龙猫,觉得龙猫这个“人物”不做成布偶实在太可惜了,于是极力央求吉卜力工作室让他制作布偶。   

 总而言之,感谢龙猫产品的销售成果,吉卜力工作室才能够慢慢地补回制作费造成的大笔赤字。龙猫后来还被吉卜力当成工作室的标志。目前吉卜力正在计画成立一个专门负责销售电影角色周边商品的部门。当然,吉卜力的方针仍是以制作电影为第一优先,周边商品的收益只是一个额外的成果而已。吉卜力从来没有(将来也不会)为了考虑周边商品的价值,而改变影片的任何一个部分。
(3) Ghibli - Start of Second Phase
 
Let me get back to the history.

The first film that made a great box office hit was "Kiki's Delivery Service," directed by Miyazaki and released in 1989. Approximately 2.64 million people went to the theater and the film became the number one hit among all Japanese films for that year. The picture outnumbered all previously released films of GHIBLI both in revenue and box office number. Behind all this success, however, there was a big concern: what to do with the company GHIBLI and how to run it. In particular, the terms of employment and the recruiting and development of staff.

In the Japanese animation film industry, it is common to pay according to how many pieces you drew or painted. This is how GHIBLI was paying its staff. As a result, the staff working on "Kiki's" was severely underpaid, receiving only about half the average salary in Japan. Miyazaki made two suggestions:
1. To introduce full time employment term and a fixed salary system thereby doubling the salary of staff.
2. To recruit staff on a regular basis and to promote training.

Despite the improving conditions of GHIBLI, the conditions surrounding the entire animation industry in Japan was declining. To make a quality picture in such an environment, Miyazaki judged that it was important to maintain a base headquarters, to establish a solid organization, to materialize full-time employment term, and to implement a training & development system for staff. It was clearly a change in management policy, or, so to speak, a beginning of the second phase of GHIBLI. Here, too, there was a support from our president Tokuma.

Allow me to speak a few about myself. It was at this time that I joined GHIBLI. Up until then, I was working as the chief editor of an animation magazine called Animage, published by Tokuma Publishing Company. I worked on Animage from its first publication in 1978, and when Tokuma started the production of "Nausicaa" in 1983, I became involved in GHIBLI as well. In Japanese, this would be called having "a shoe for two legs," meaning having two jobs at one time. The days were hectic, but gratifying. When the new management policy was introduced into GHIBLI, my life was changed too. Both GHIBLI and myself had come to a point where there was no turning back.

After "Kiki's Delivery Service," GHIBLI began its production of "Only Yesterday," directed by Miyazaki. And while the work was going on, in November of 1990, full-time employment term materialized, an animation training program was introduced and regular annual recruitment was implemented.

The film "Only Yesterday," released in 1991, became another box-office hit despite staff concern, and just as "Kiki's," this also became number one for the year. But what pleased us most was the accomplishment of two major targets that Miyazaki had proposed: To double the salary and to recruit on a regular basis. In accomplishing these two items, however, one problem emerged: massive increase in production cost. It was something we had anticipated. We were aware that 80% of animation production cost came from the cost of manpower, and if salary had doubled, so will the production cost.

The new policy for GHIBLI in its second phase, therefore, made us look toward further effort in advertising and thereby increasing box-office revenue. If massive increase in production cost was unavoidable, then the only choice left was to conscientiously and strategically plan for increase in box office performance. It is not that we never thought of it, but it was with this "Only Yesterday" that we seriously started to work on advertising.

It was about this time that Toru Hara, the chief executive officer of GHIBLI then, described GHIBLI as having the 3Hs, 3Hs meaning High Cost, High Risk, and High Return. To produce top quality work, it takes high production cost; and though there may be high risk, or apprehension in the course, the benefit or return will be big. I think this is what he had meant. 4 years have passed and this is still true today. But even if there was high return, because all of it goes into the next production, nothing remains in our hands.

To employ full-time employees now meant having to pay out monthly salary. What GHIBLI did was to create a situation where it had to constantly keep working on a production. GHIBLI, destined now to continually producing, went ahead to start on "Porco Rosso," even before finishing "Only Yesterday." This overlapping situation was the first GHIBLI had experienced. "Only Yesterday" was in the final busiest stage before its completion. In a time when every help was needed, how could we bring the staff to start working on a new film. There certainly was no surplus in manpower. The result was Miyazaki having to work alone on "Porco Rosso" at its start. Of course Miyazaki was not happy. "What? You mean I have to produce, direct and assist all on my own?", he complained, but there was no choice but tell him to do it.
 第一部为吉卜力创下极佳票房的电影,是1989年由宫崎骏导演的《魔女宅急便》,《魔女宅急便》吸引了大约264,000,000名的观众,同时,它也成为日本全年度最卖座的电影。这部电影所带来的收益及票房,超过了所有吉卜力工作室之前所作的每一部电影。然而,在这次大成功的背后,吉卜力遇上了另一个问题:吉卜力倒底该怎么运作比较好呢?尤其是在雇佣关系、工作人员的召募和工作室的发展方面,更是需要考虑的问题。在日本的动画电影界,一般都是按照所画的张数来计算员工的薪资,这也是吉卜力给付它的员工薪资的计算方法。然而,《魔女宅急便》的工作小组所得到的薪水却严重偏低,差不多只有日本平均薪资的一半。于是,宫崎骏做了两个建议:

1.改用全职的雇佣制度以及固定的薪水制度,将工作小组的薪水加倍。
2.固定规律地召募新员工,并且加强训练制度。

 虽然吉卜力工作室的经济状况现在有了改善,但是当时全日本的动画界却是处在低迷状况。因此,想在这样的环境下仍能维持制作的水准,宫崎骏认为吉卜力需要一个固定的工作总部,用来建立坚固的组织系统、实现全职员工制度的理想、同时进行工作人员的训练和扩增的计划。所以可以说,吉卜力的管理经营策略有了很大的转变,自此之后,吉卜力进入了第二个时期。

 继《魔女宅急便》之后,吉卜力的下一部作品是《岁月的童话》导演是高畑勋。在这部电影制作工作进行的同时,1990年的十一月,全职制度实施了,而且吉卜力也开始推行动画训练的课程,每年固定招收新员工的制度也实现了。

 《岁月的童话》这部电影在1991年公开上映,也创下了极佳的票房。和「魔女宅急便」一样,它也成为当年最卖座的电影。不过,最让我们高兴的是,宫崎骏的两个建议全都实现了:加倍的薪水和固定招收新员工。但,这两个方案付诸实行的同时,也产生另一个新的问题:影片制作成本的大幅提高。这是吉卜力早已预料到的结果,既然动画制作的成本有80%是来自人力,那么薪水提高两倍的结果当然会造成成本大为提高。
所以在这个时期,吉卜力的新政策是━━在广告方面做更多的努力,并希望借此来提升票房。如果制作成本的增加是无法避免的话,那唯一的解决之道,就只有利用策略性的手段来提高票房一途了。吉卜力工作室之前并不是没有想过这个问题,只不过是在「岁月的童话」之后,他们才真正想到要在广告方面下功夫。

 大约就在那个时候,吉卜力的总执行长指出了吉卜力工作室的「3Hs」状况。「3Hs」就是指「High Cost」、「High Return」和「High Return」。要制作最高品质的电影,就必须投注很高的制作成本,同时虽然这样做会有很高的风险,但是得到报酬收益却是很大的。这大概就是「3Hs」的意义。从这之后到现在已经过了4年,吉卜力仍然维持着这样的原则。不过,虽然报酬收益很高,却全部又投注在下一部电影的制作上面了,所以吉卜力到现在还是穷光蛋….

 雇用全职员工的意义,就是吉卜力必须每个月给付员工薪水。吉卜力对这个情况的应变方法,是维持一种不断工作的状态,也就是不断地制作新的电影,现在这已成了吉卜力的宿命了。所以,吉卜力工作室不得不开始「红猪」的制作,而当时「岁月的童话」的制作还尚未完工呢!吉卜力第一次遇上这种两部电影制作时间重叠的情况,当时「岁月的童话」正在接近完工、最忙碌的阶段。在这种非常时节,吉卜力根本不可能拨出员工来制作「红猪」。结果呢,在红猪制作刚开始的时候,可怜的宫崎骏竟然必须自己单枪匹马地工作。当然,宫崎骏很不高兴,「什么?你是说我必须自己一个人包办制作、导演和所有的助手角色?…」 虽然他苦苦哀求,但是残酷的吉卜力仍然……。
(4) Ghibli - Building of the New Studio
 
Whether it was to relieve the stress he was under, Miyazaki out of the blue came up with a proposition: "Let's build a new studio!" It was the Miyazaki way: when facing a problem, try to find a break through by coming up with a much greater problem! But the reasons he gave were convincing. If we are trying to get the best people, a rented office is not impressive enough. Without space people cannot gather; and without a good one, people will not develop. The space GHIBLI was using was already full - approximately 90 people were working in a 300 square meter space. But GHIBLI did not have the money to build a new studio.

Hara was a man of common sense who was opposed to this idea. While I knew the idea of building a new studio was ridiculous, I took it rather optimistically: Give it a try. Tokuma, the president, was totally for it and even sent me a word of encouragement, saying, "Suzuki, there is plenty of money in the bank. There are times when a man must carry heavy loads on his back." I remember a strange rush of emotion that I felt then, realizing what a way to view life. Hara left the studio, saying he could no longer follow.

Miyazaki of this year was a true genius, who presented his talents in many ways. While making the "Porco Rosso," he drew the blueprint of the new studio himself, held meetings with the builders to bring it as close to his image as possible, drew the image drawing of the completed studio, gathered, checked, chose the materials, and made the final decision. One year later, both the film "Porco Rosso" and the new studio were completed almost at the same time. Immediately after the release of "Porco," GHIBLI moved to its new studio in the city of Koganei in the suburb of Tokyo Met.

Just to keep you updated, the site of the new studio where we are now is approximately 1100 square meter wide and the total floor space also occupies about the same. The building has a basement and 3 floors above ground. The third floor is occupied by the art department, second by the drawing and production departments, the first floor by the tracing/painting department, and the basement by the photography department. On the first floor there is a space called the "BAR," which is used as a communication space for all staff. The space, however, is rarely used as a bar, maybe several times a year for drinks, and most of the time is used as a conference room or as a cafeteria space. The most unique part of the building is in the rest room. In GHIBLI, the ladies' rest room is double the size of men's, even though the number of men and women are about the same. The facilities are better in the ladies too. Perhaps this is just one of the ways our architect Miyazaki showed his support for feminism. Other characteristics of the studio is that it has lots of greenery and that parking area was intentionally made smaller.

Let's get back to where we were. In the summer of 1992, the film "Porco Rosso" was released and became the number one box-office hit of the year, surpassing all others released in that year, even Spielberg's "Hook" and Disney's "the Beauty and the Beast."
 宫崎骏在接下了红猪的工作之后,不知是为了消解压力还是什么的,提出了一个建议:「嘿!我们来盖一座新的工作室吧!」这就是宫崎骏一贯的方式:当遇到一个问题的时候,就制造一个更大的问题作为解决的方法!!不过宫崎骏的理由倒是很充分:「如果吉卜力想吸引最好的人才,一间租来的办公室未免太寒酸了吧!」所以啦,吉卜力工作室的新家终于开始兴建啦!

 吉卜力工作室的外貌那一年的宫崎骏真是个天才,在制作《红猪》的同时,他也一个人画好了新工作室的蓝图,亲自和建造商接洽,要求工作室完成时能尽量接近他理想的样子。一年之后,《红猪》和新的工作室几乎同时完成.《红猪》一上映,吉卜力就高高兴兴地搬到新家去了。
新的工作室一共有三层楼,整座建筑物最特别的地方大概是休息室了。虽然吉卜力里的女性员工只有男性的一半,但是女生的休息室却比男生大了两倍,而且设备也比较好。可能这是我们伟大的建筑师宫崎骏,在表现他对女性主义的支持吧!!另外,新工作室的绿地也非常多,而停车的空间被宫崎骏刻意弄得比较小了……呵

 回到主题。1992年的夏天《红猪》上映了,又成为年度票房最佳的电影,甚至连史蒂芬史匹柏的电影《虎克船长》和迪士尼的《美女与野兽》都不是对手。
(5) Ghibli - Its Uniqueness
 
In 1993, GHIBLI purchased 2 large computerized cameras, at which time a photography department was set up, which was something we had long awaited and planned for. With the addition of this new department, GHIBLI now had grown into a studio that had all the departments from animation, art, tracing/painting, all the way to photography. This is completely the opposite direction the Japanese animation industry was moving toward, which is extreme separation of departments. The reason GHIBLI took the direction that it did was the belief that working closely under one roof with a common objective was important in achieving high quality work.

In 1993, GHIBLI produced its first TV animation, "the Ocean Waves." The director was Tomomitsu Mochizuki, 34 years of age at that time. It was the first time a person other than Miyazaki or Takahata had directed a film. The production staff was young, consisted mostly of those in the 20s and 30s. Their motto was to produce "quickly, cheaply and with quality."

This 70-minute TV special received satisfactory results, but in terms of budget and time schedule, had exceeded the plan. TV will be the area of development for GHIBLI.

The 1994 film directed by Takahata, "Pon Poco" also became the year's number one Japanese film. In this picture, most the animation was done by and a great deal of efforts were put into by the young staff who were employed after "Only Yesterday" and who literally grew up in GHIBLI. In "Pon Poco," GHIBLI for the first time used CG, the computer graphics. There were only 3 cuts using CG, but more of it will be used as we find necessary.

Studio GHIBLI now has a staff total of 99: Animation 46, tracing/painting 8, art 12, photography 4, directing and producing 12, publication and marketing 5, and management 12. As you can see from these numbers, most of our staff are in working on animation. The average age is 29.

As I have repeatedly mentioned, GHIBL's production cost may be high compared to other studios. But as you can see from our organization, most of the cost goes into films. This is what makes GHIBLI unique. We are able to do this because, as compared to other companies, we are spending much less on supporting departments.

It is Miyazaki's philosophy that Japanese should create on their own what they want to show to their children. So let me add by saying that in pursuit of this philosophy, the studio has never asked for support from studios overseas.
 1993年,吉卜力购进了两部大型的电脑化摄影机,同时也设立了吉卜力渴望已久的摄影部门。新增了这个部门之后,吉卜力终于成长为一个具备作画部门、美术部门、上色部门,及摄影部门的工作室了。这和日本动画工业界的发展方向完全相反,日本动画界一般是强调分工要极度精细的。而吉卜力采用相反发展方向的原因,是因为他们觉得大家在一个屋檐下,为着共同的目标而努力,这样对达到高品质工作是很重要的。
 1993年,吉卜力制作了他们的第一部TV动画,<听到涛声>负责导演的是望月智充,时年34岁。他是第一位除了宫崎骏和高畑勋以外,和吉卜力合作执导影片的导演。这部影片的制作群都非常年轻,大部分由20多岁到30多岁的人组成。他们的工作信条是「快速、便宜而又有品质的制片」。

 这部70分钟长的电视特别节目获得了令人满意的成果,但是在预算及制作时间方面,却超出了计画中所预期的。所以,电视是吉卜力未来仍需发展的领域。
 
 平成狸合战1994年由高畑勋所导演的《平成狸合战》也成为年度日本国产片的第一名。在这部动画中,大部分的动画部分都是由《岁月的童话》之后新加入吉卜力、在吉卜力成熟的年轻成员完成的,而他们也为「平成狸合战」这部影片下了非常大的努力。在「平成狸合战」中,吉卜力第一次使用电脑作画(CG)。虽然只有3个cut有使用CG,但以后只要有需要,他们会用得更多。
吉卜力现在总共有99位成员:作画部门46人、上色部门8人、美术部门12人、摄影部门4人、导演及制作部门10人、出版及商品开发部门5人、管理等部门共12人。就如这些数字所显示的,吉卜力大部分的工作成员都是负责动画部分的。全体工作成员的平均年龄是29岁。

 前面有提过,吉卜力的影片制作费可能会比其他的工作室来得高。但是从吉卜力的组织架构来看,大部分的经费都花在影片上面了。这就是吉卜力特别的地方。吉卜力之所以能够这样做,就是因为他们和其他的公司比起来,花在支撑各个部门的费用要少太多了。

 在宫崎骏的哲学中,他认为日本应该自己来创造他们想让日本小孩看的东西。所以,遵循宫崎骏哲学的吉卜力,从未向海外其他国家的工作室请求任何的援助。我们现在来谈谈吉卜力在国外的活动吧!!
(6) Ghibli Goes Abroad
 
Let me now talk about GHIBLI's activities abroad.

Up until now, overseas release of GHIBLI's works had mainly been limited in the Asian region, namely Hong Kong and Taiwan. This has started to change since about two years ago. The first was the release of "My Neighbor Totoro" in the United States. Soon after, 20th Century Fox distributed its home videos that sold over 560,000. This is phenomenal for a Japanese film having gone this far in the US film industry. Moreover, "Pon Poco" was chosen to represent Japan in the Academy Awards as a nominee for Best Foreign Film.

As many of you may already know, in France too, the picture "Porco Rosso" made its appearances in over 60 theaters. The voice of Porco Rosso, the main character, was done by the famous actor Jean Reno. As a matter of fact, it was recently brought to our attention that our director Miyazaki happens to be a great fan of Jean, and loves the character Enzo, which Reno played in the movie "Gran Bleu (Great Blue). " Needless to say, Miyazaki was quite pleased with this casting.

It is our hope to be able to bring to you more of GHIBLI to Europe and North America in the future. As long as the proposition we receive is constructive and rational, we are happy to accept. As creators of animations, it would please us the most to be able to have as great many audiences and to be able to make our audiences happy, regardless of race or nationality. But in order to have our work released properly in foreign countries, there are many hurdles that must be overcome. Many propositions that we receive are such that they want to just sell home videos or they want to air them on TV. Our priority remains that our pictures are made to be shown in the theater.

It goes without saying that we allow no alterations in the work that we produce. It is therefore quite unfortunate that we did not have enough wisdom and experience then when we made the "Nausicaa of the Valley of Wind" because this was, without our knowledge, edited into a short version and released in the United States and other regions under the title "Warriors of the Wind." If any of you have seen this edited version, we'd like to ask you to dismiss it from your minds.

One point I'd like to note is that GHIBLI has not and never will produce a picture with multinational marketing strategies in mind in order that we may capture the world market. GHIBLI will continue its style to create solely for the Japanese audiences. And if situation allows us, we will then look toward the rest of the world.
 到现在为止,吉卜力的作品主要仅限于在亚洲地区发行,也就是香港和台湾两地。大约在两年前,这样的情形渐渐有了改变。首先是「龙猫」在美国的上映。很快地福斯公司取得了发行「龙猫」家用录影带的版权,并且销售量达到560,000卷。在美国的电影界,日本片能有这样的成绩是很惊人的。另外,「平成狸合战」还被选为代表日本角逐奥斯卡最佳外语片呢!

 大家可能也知道,在法国「红猪」曾在六十多个戏院上映,负责配波哥的是一位著名的演员尚雷诺Jane Reno。事实上,宫崎骏本人恰好是Jane Reno的影迷,他非常喜欢Jane Reno在「碧海蓝天Gran Bleu(Great Blue)」这部电影中饰演的角色安索Enzo。所以啦,宫崎骏对尚雷诺Jane Reno能在红猪中参加出当然是非常高兴的。

 吉卜力希望在未来能将作品推广到欧洲和北美,只要是有建设性且合理的提案,他们都会很高兴地采纳。身为动画的创作师,能让更多的观众欣赏自己创作的影片,并给大家带来快乐,吉卜力会很高兴的,不管观众的种族或国籍为何都是一样。但是为了要将作品在国外发行,吉卜力也遇到了很多困难。他们所收到的很多提案,都是只希望将影片录成家用录影带,或是只想在电视上放映而已。但吉卜力却希望他们的电影能以在戏院上映为优先,毕竟电影本来就是为了在电影院放映而制作的。

 当然,吉卜力绝不允许任何人修改他们的作品。然而很不幸的,由于他们经验和思虑的不足,在「风之谷」制作的时候,有人将它改成较短的版本,然后以「Warriors of the Wind」的名字在美国及其他地区上映。

 有一点是仍需强调的,吉卜力从未(今后也是一样)为了市场的考量,而制作一部适合多国市场的影片。吉卜力将会维持一贯的风格,单纯只为日本的观众制作影片。如果情况允许的话,他们才会朝其他的国家发展。
(7) Ghibli - Its Future
 
In the "Whisper of the Heart" released in the summer of 1995, GHIBLI tried a new staff composition: Miyazaki was responsible for producing, screenplay and continuity; and Kondo, who was the animation director in "Fireflies," "Kiki's," and "Only Yesterday," challenged as the director in this film. In addition, we are experimenting by implementing the latest digital technologies in various departments. After the completion of "Whisper of the Heart," GHIBLI has started on its production of its eleventh picture, in 1985 "The Princess of Mononoke," to be released in 1997. This picture, under the direction of Miyazaki, will be GHIBLI's new challenge in that a great deal of computer technology will be applied.

For this new challenge, a group specializing in CG has been set up and the least required system for CG system was implemented. At the same time, we invited a CG director from Nippon Television Network, who had worked with us in the "Pon Poco," to join us in the production team. The money we have invested in systems only for the first year amounts to 100 million yen. The digital technology which had shown good results in the "Whisper of the Heart" will be used massively in this picture. The computer technology will definitely give much greater depth into the animation images from what used to be mere flat two-dimensional pictures.

In April of 1995, GHIBLI started a "East Koganei Village School of Animation" in an effort to excavate and develop new directors to follow Kondo. The school master is Takahata.

There is no guarantee that Studio GHIBLI will continue to do as well as it has been. It has never slipped our mind that each picture comes to us as a new challenge. To continue to be innovative in terms of the quality of work, technology, and development of personnel is the first and most important factor in maintaining the essence of Studio GHIBLI.

This concludes my story on GHIBLI. If you have any questions, I would be glad to answer them. You must pardon me, though, for my responses will have to be in Japanese.
 在1995年夏天上映的「侧耳倾听」中,吉卜力尝试了一个新的制作群组合。宫崎骏负责制作、编剧、绘分镜表,而曾在「萤火虫之墓」、「魔女宅急便」及「岁月的童话」中担任动画导演的近藤喜文,则出马挑战导演一职。此外,吉卜力也试着在影片中的各个部分加入了最近的数字技术。在「岁月的童话」完成之后,吉卜力开始着手制作他们的第十一部影片,「幽灵公主」,此片将在1997年上映。这部由宫崎骏执导的电影将会应用非常多的电脑科技,这是吉卜力的一大挑战。为了应付这个新的挑战,吉卜力设立了一个专门的CG小组,也购置了一切CG所需的设备。同时,他们也邀请了一位Nippon Television Network的CG导演加入「幽灵公主」制作小组,这位导演以前也曾在「平成狸合战」中参加制作。
光是影片制作的第一年,吉卜力就在更新系统上投资了一亿日元。在「侧耳倾听」中表现优秀的电脑技术将会在「幽灵公主」中大量地使用。电脑技术将会使原来只有2D的平面影像变得更加有深度(景深吧…)。

 在1995年的四月,吉卜力创立了一座「东小金井动画学院」(小金井是吉卜力所在的一座市镇),希望能挖掘出并培养更多像近藤这样的新导演人才。学校的校长是高畑勋。没人能保证吉卜力工作室能继续像这样顺利地发展下去。吉卜力从来没有忘记,每一部电影对他们来说都是个新的挑战。持续地在品质、技术及人才培育方面不断创新,这就是吉卜力工作室存在的理由。