魔女宅急便 导演备忘录

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 「龙猫」导演备忘录——关于登场人物
〈企划书·导演备忘录〉
琦琦 今日少女们的愿望和心情
找寻我们自己的出发点 大东京物语企划书

琦琦 今日少女们的愿望和心情

  原著「魔女的宅急便(魔女の宅急便)」(作者:角野荣子、福音馆书店发行)以温暖的语辞描写站在独立与依赖的夹缝中的今日少女们的愿望和心情,是一部相当优秀的儿童文学作品。对昔日故事的主角们来说,历尽千辛万苦后所得到的经济上的独立就等于是精神上的独立。时至今日,诚如打工族(Free Arbeiter)、延期偿还(Moratorium)、辛苦(Travail)等外来语的大为流行,经济上的独立已经不再等于是精神上的独立。在今日这个时代,所谓的贫困,不再仅止于物质上的匮乏,反倒是用来形容心灵上的贫乏居多。
  在这个把离开父母此一成长必经仪式看得不怎么重要、在人群中生活也只须一间便利商店就可解决所需的年代里,就某个层面来说,少女们所面临的独立问题将变得更加困难,因为,她们必须要想尽办法发现自己的才能并加以充分发挥,进而努力去实现自我才行。
  剧中的魔女主角——十三岁的琦琦只拥有飞天的能力。而且,在这个世界里,魔女已经不再算是稀奇。她身上背负着到陌生的城市生活一整年、好让大家都能对魔女有所了解的学习课题。
  其中有描写到一个梦想成为漫画家的少女、只身前往大都市奋斗的情节。听说现在的日本青少年里面,立志成为漫画家的人数多达三十万人。其实,漫画家并不算是特别稀奇的职业。比起来,它出道比较容易,生活也不难维持。往往要等到后来在不断重复的日常琐事中才开始碰壁受挫,这是当今的写照。虽然有母亲使用过的扫帚守护着、用父亲所买的收音机来提振精神,以及一只如影随形的黑猫紧跟在后,但是,琦琦的心里还是害怕孤独、对人充满了渴望。这就是当今许多少女的缩影,她们也是在备受父母呵护,甚至接受父母经济援助的情况下,对于繁华都市有无尽向往而渴望能到那里独立生活。琦琦的想法太过天真、认识太浅,也正好反映出现今少女们的心态。
  在原著作品中,琦琦凭着天生的好心肠解决了所有的难题。同时也因此广结善缘。既然我们决定要拍成电影,就必须更改部分的内容才行。看到她得心应手地施展魔法的模样,的确会让人感到很愉快,问题是,那些在都市里讨生活的少女们的心情应该更加曲折才对。毕竟对大多数的少女来说,要突破自立的高墙并不容易,甚至有许多人在整个过程当中未曾得到任何的祝福。因此,我们想在电影里进一步探讨有关独立的问题。电影向来就比较逼真而且有临场感,相信观众应该可以从中感受到比原著更加强烈的孤独感和挫折感才对。
  当我们遇见琦琦的时候,浮现脑际的第一个画面,就是一个少女正在都市夜景的上空飞翔。灯光灿烂。可是,却没有任何一盏灯愿意给她温暖……。在天空飞翔的孤独感。虽然拥有飞天能力意味着可以远离地面获得解放,但是,获得自由也意味着不安和孤独。而决定靠自己的力量飞上天际的少女,就是这部电影的主角。到目前为止,电视上放映过许多部以魔法少女为题材的动画,只不过,他们都把魔女当作是少女实现愿望的手段。一个个没有吃过任何苦的魔女就那么变成了大家的偶像。至于「魔女的宅急便」里的魔法,可不是那么简易方便的力量。
  这部电影里的魔法是有限制的,指的是一般少女都具有的力量,也就是自身所拥有的才能。
  当琦琦在街道上方飞翔时,心中除了感受到屋檐下的人群与她有着深刻的关连,同时也比以前更加确信并肯定自我——我们打算要用这种幸福的画面来做结尾。因为我们相信,这样的结尾不光只是一个愿望,而是整部电影的描绘过程要能彰显出那样的说服力才行。
  我们制作这部电影的目的,并不是要否定现代少女们的花样年华,也不会被她们的绚烂所迷惑,而是要向那些在独立和依赖的夹缝中徬徨犹豫的年轻观众致意(毕竟,我们也曾经年轻过,对年纪较轻的工作人员来说,这也是她们目前正面临的问题)。同时也希望这部电影能够成为一部杰出的娱乐作品,得到大多数观众的共鸣和感动。

(一九八八年四月)


THE HOPES AND SPIRIT OF CONTEMPORARY JAPANESE GIRLS

 Eiko Kadono's original story, Majo no Takkyubin ‘Kiki's Delivery Service’(Published by Fukuinkan Shoten Publishers Inc.) is a fine work of children's literature warmly depicting the gulf that exists between independence and reliance in the hopes and spirit of contemporary Japanese girls.

 At one time the main characters of stories for young people gained financial independence,which was then equal to spiritual independence, after struggling through difficulties.  In today's society, however, where anyone can earn money going from one temporary job to another, there is no connection between financial independence and spiritual independence.In this era, poverty is not so much material as spiritual.
 
 In an era when leaving the security of one's home is no longer anything special, and living among strangers means nothing more than going to a convenience store for anything you need, it might be more difficult than ever to achieve a real sense of independence since you must go through the process of discovering your own talents and expressing yourself.

 The only unusual thing that the heroine,13 year-old Kiki can do is fly through the sky.  Moreover in this world witches are not much more talented than normal girls.She has the duty to live for a year in an unfamiliar town and exercise her talents to make people acknowledge her as a proper witch.
 
 This is like someone who wants to be a cartoonist coming alone to Tokyo.  Today there are said to be around 300,000 young men and women who are hoping to make it as cartoonists.  Being a cartoonist is not that unusual a job.  It is comparatively easy to get started and to make some sort of living.  But a characteristic of modern life is that once the needs of daily life are taken care of the real problem of selfrealization begins.Kiki is protected by Mother's old but well-looked-after broom, she has the radio that was a gift from father, and the black cat she is so close to that it is almost like a part of herself, but Kiki's heart wavers between isolation and longing for human company.  In Kiki's life we see reflected the lives of so many young Japanese girls today who are loved and supported economically by their parents, but who long for the bright lights of the city, and are about to go there and become independent.The weakness of her determination and the shallowness of her understanding are also reflected in the world of today's young people.
 
 In the original, Kiki solves difficult problems with her naturally good heart.  At the same time her circle of allies increases.  In filming this we have had to make a few changes.  The process of her developing her talent is surely pleasant but the spirit of our young girls living in the capital today is not so simple.  The biggest problem for many young girls is the fight to break through the barrier of independence, and there are too many people who feel they have received not a single blessing.  We feel, therefore, in this movie that we must give serious treatment to the problem of independence.  As movies always create a more realistic feeling,Kiki will suffer stronger setbacks and loneliness than in the original.

 Our first image of Kiki when we meet her is of the form of a small girl flying through the night sky over the capital.
Many lights shine, but there is not a single light to warmly beckon her.She is isolated as she flies in the sky.  It is usually felt that the power of flight would liberate one from the earth, but freedom is accompanied by anxiety and loneliness.  Our heroine is a girl who has decided to identify herself by her ability to fly.  Quite a few TV cartoons about little witches have been made before this, but the witchcraft has always merely been the means to fulfill the dreams of young girls.  They have always become idols with no difficulties.The witch of Majo no Takkyubin (Kiki's Delivery Service) does not possess that convenient kind of power.

 The talents of witch of this film are really little more than those possessed by any real‐life girl.

 We are planning a happy ending.  As Kiki flies over the town she feels a strong bond between herself and the people who live below, and is happy being herself.We are hoping to make the film persuasive enough that viewers will conclude that the ending is happy, rather than merely wish it to be so.
 
 I feel that this film will fulfill its goal of reaching out with a feeling of solidarity to our young viewers: the young girls living in today's world who do not deny the joy of youth, nor are carried away by it, torn between freedom and dependence (because we were all young men and women once, and the young members of our staff have these very problems now).  At the same time I feel that the basic potential of this film as entertainment lies in this point and that it will inspire sympathy in the viewers.

HAYAO MIYAZAKI